Top 4 Reasons for Node Reboot or Node Eviction in Real Application Cluster (RAC) Environment

Remote DBA usually face Node Reboots or Node Evictions in Real Application Cluster Environment. Node Reboot is performed by CRS to maintain consistency in Cluster environment by removing node which is facing some critical issue.

A critical problem could be a node not responding via a network heartbeat, a node not responding via a disk heartbeat, a hung , or a hung ocssd.bin process etc. There could be many more reasons for node Eviction but Some of them are common and repetitive.Here, I am listing:-

Top 4 Reasons for Node Reboot or Node Eviction in Real Application Cluster (RAC) Environment:

Whenever, Database Administrator face Node Reboot issue, First thing to look at should be /var/log/message and OS Watcher logs of the Database Node which was rebooted.

var/log/messages will give you an actual picture of reboot:- Exact time of restart, status of resource like swap and RAM etc.

1. High Load on Database Server: Out of 100 Issues, I have seen 70 to 80 time High load on the system was reason for Node Evictions, One common scenario is due to high load RAM and SWAP space of DB node got exhaust and system stops working and finally reboot.

So, Every time you see a node eviction start investigation with /var/log/messages and Analyze OS Watcher logs. Below is a situation when a Database Node was reboot due to high load.

/var/log/messages output from a Database Node just before Node eviction:
Apr 23 08:15:04 remotedb06 kernel: Node 0 DMA: 2*4kB 1*8kB 0*16kB 1*32kB 2*64kB 0*128kB 1*256kB 0*512kB 1*1024kB 1*2048kB 3*4096kB = 15792kB
Apr 23 08:15:04 remotedb06 kernel: Node 0 DMA32: 150*4kB 277*8kB 229*16kB 186*32kB 51*64kB 65*128kB 82*256kB 13*512kB 3*1024kB 3*2048kB 78*4096kB = 380368kB
Apr 23 08:15:04 remotedb06 kernel: Node 0 Normal: 12362*4kB 58*8kB 0*16kB 0*32kB 0*64kB 0*128kB 2*256kB 1*512kB 0*1024kB 1*2048kB 0*4096kB = 52984kB
Apr 23 08:15:09 remotedb06 kernel: 83907 total pagecache pages
Apr 23 08:15:11 remotedb06 kernel: 39826 pages in swap cache
Apr 23 08:15:11 remotedb06 kernel: Swap cache stats: add 30820220, delete 30780387, find 18044378/19694662
Apr 23 08:15:14 remotedb06 kernel: Free swap  = 4kB
Apr 23 08:15:15 remotedb06 kernel: Total swap = 25165816kB
Apr 23 08:15:16 remotedb06 kernel: 25165808 pages RAM
Apr 23 08:15:28 remotedb06 kernel: 400673 pages reserved
Apr 23 08:15:30 remotedb06 kernel: 77691135 pages shared
Apr 23 08:15:31 remotedb06 kernel: 9226743 pages non-shared
Apr 23 08:15:33 remotedb06 kernel: osysmond.bin: page allocation failure. order:4, mode:0xd0
From above message, we can see that this system has only 4kB free swap out of 24G swap space. This means system neither has RAM not SWAP for processing, which case a reboot. This picture is also clear from OS Watcher of system.
08:15:29     CPU   %user   %nice    %sys %iowait    %irq   %soft  %steal   %idle    intr/s

08:15:29     all    0.67    0.00   82.60   16.60    0.00    0.06    0.00    0.07  42521.98
08:15:35     all    0.84    0.00   23.40   73.19    0.00    0.11    0.00    2.47  35859.59
08:15:39     all    1.22    0.00   85.13   13.47    0.00    0.13    0.00    0.04  40569.31
08:15:45     all    1.57    0.00   98.22    0.13    0.00    0.08    0.00    0.00  36584.31
08:15:50     all    1.41    0.00   98.48    0.04    0.00    0.07    0.00    0.00  36643.10
08:15:54     all    0.84    0.00   99.09    0.03    0.00    0.05    0.00    0.00  36257.02
08:16:06     all    0.95    0.00   98.88    0.09    0.00    0.08    0.00    0.00  39113.15
08:16:11     all    0.87    0.00   99.00    0.07    0.00    0.06    0.00    0.00  37490.22
08:16:16     all    0.89    0.00   98.97    0.07    0.00    0.07    0.00    0.00  37681.04
08:16:22     all    0.78    0.00   99.12    0.05    0.00    0.05    0.00    0.00  36963.75
08:16:38     all    0.79    0.00   98.86    0.28    0.00    0.08    0.00    0.00  36639.21
08:16:43     all    0.78    0.00   98.79    0.34    0.00    0.08    0.00    0.01  37405.99
08:16:54     all    1.06    0.00   98.71    0.12    0.00    0.11    0.00    0.00  38102.37
08:17:08     all    1.69    0.00   67.02   30.93    0.00    0.06    0.00    0.29  37316.55

How to avoid Node Reboot due to High Load ?

The simple and best way to avoid this is use Oracle Database Resource Manager (DBRM). DBRM help to resolve this by allowing the database to have more control over how hardware resources and their allocation. DBA should setup Resource consumer group and Resource plan and should use them as per requirements. In Exadata system Exadata DBA can use IORM to setup resource allocation among multiple database instances.

2. Voting Disk not Reachable: One of the another reason for Node Reboot is clusterware is not able to access a minimum number of the voting files.When the node aborts for this reason, the node alert log will show CRS-1606 error.

Here is a scenario for voting disk not reachable:
2013-01-26 10:15:47.177
[cssd(3743)]CRS-1606:The number of voting files available, 1, is less than the minimum number of voting files required, 2, resulting in CSSD 
termination to ensure data integrity; details at (:CSSNM00018:) in /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/log/apdbc76n1/cssd/ocssd.log
There could be two reasons for this issue:

    A. Connection to the voting disk is interrupted.
    B. if only one voting disk is in use and version is less than, hitting known bug  13869978.

How to Solve Voting Disk Outage ?

There could be many reasons for voting disk is not reachable, Here are few general approach for DBA to follow.

1. Use command "crsctl query css votedisk" on a node where clusterware is up to get a list of all the voting files.
2. Check that each node can access the devices underlying each voting file.
3. Check for permissions to each voting file/disk have not been changed.
4. Check OS, SAN, and storage logs for any errors from the time of the incident.
5. Apply fix for 13869978 if only one voting disk is in use. This is fixed in patch set and above, and and above

If any voting files or underlying devices are not currently accessible from any node, work with storage administrator and/or system administrator to resolve it at storage and/or OS level.

3. Missed Network Connection between Nodes: In technical term this is called as Missed Network Heartbeat (NHB). Whenever there is communication gap or no communication between nodes on private network (interconnect) due to network outage or some other reason. A node abort itself to avoid "split brain" situation. The most common (but not exclusive) cause of missed NHB is network problems communicating over the private interconnect.

Suggestion to troubleshoot Missed Network Heartbeat.

1. Check OS statistics from the evicted node from the time of the eviction. DBA can use OS Watcher to look at OS Stats at time of issue, check oswnetstat and oswprvtnet for network related issues.
2. Validate the interconnect network setup with the Help of Network administrator.
3. Check communication over the private network.
4. Check that the OS network settings are correct by running the RACcheck tool.

4. Database Or ASM Instance Hang: Sometimes Database or ASM instance hang can cause Node reboot. In these case Database instance is hang and is terminated afterwards, which cause either reboot cluster or Node eviction. DBA should check alert log of Database and ASM instance for any hang situation which might cause this issue.

Database Alert log file entry for Database Hang Situation:
Wed Jun 05 03:25:01 2013
Sweep [inc][122970]: completed
System State dumped to trace file /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/remotedb/remotedb2/incident/incdir_122970/remotedb2_m005_118200_i122970_a.trc
Wed Jun 05 03:25:33 2013
DSKM process appears to be hung. Initiating system state dump.
Wed Jun 05 03:25:33 2013
System state dump requested by (instance=2, osid=9757 (GEN0)), summary=[system state dump request (ksz_check_ds)].
System State dumped to trace file /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/remotedb/remotedb2/trace/remotedb2_diag_9759.trc
Wed Jun 05 03:27:04 2013
Errors in file /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/remotedb/remotedb2/trace/remotedb2_pmon_9707.trc  (incident=122897):
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [ksz_cln_proc1], [0x143642090], [3], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
Incident details in: /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/remotedb/remotedb2/incident/incdir_122897/remotedb2_pmon_9707_i122897.trc
Use ADRCI or Support Workbench to package the incident.
See Note 411.1 at My Oracle Support for error and packaging details.
Errors in file /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/remotedb/remotedb2/trace/remotedb2_pmon_9707.trc:
ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [ksz_cln_proc1], [0x143642090], [3], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
PMON (ospid: 9707): terminating the instance due to error 472
Wed Jun 05 03:27:05 2013
System state dump requested by (instance=2, osid=9707 (PMON)), summary=[abnormal instance termination].
System State dumped to trace file /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/remotedb/remotedb2/trace/remotedb2_diag_9759.trc
Instance terminated by PMON, pid = 9707
Wed Jun 05 03:45:58 2013
Starting ORACLE instance (normal)
At the same time resources at Cluster level start failing and node was evicted by itself. Real Application Cluster Log files
[/u01/app/]CRS-5011:Check of resource "PCAB1DE" failed: details at "(:CLSN00007:)" in "/u01/app/"
2013-06-05 03:27:06.649
[/u01/app/]CRS-5011:Check of resource "P1PANIE" failed: details at "(:CLSN00007:)" in "/u01/app/"
2013-06-05 03:32:41.360
[/u01/app/]CRS-5011:Check of resource "P1ESXPE" failed: details at "(:CLSN00007:)" in "/u01/app/"
2013-06-05 03:36:25.675
[cssd(67762)]CRS-1662:Member kill requested by node exs2db03 for member number 1, group DBPCAB1DE
2013-06-05 03:36:58.775
[/u01/app/]CRS-5818:Aborted command 'clean' for resource 'ora.pcab1de.db'. Details at (:CRSAGF00113:) {0:6:28} in /u01/app/
2013-06-05 03:37:06.784
[/u01/app/]CRS-5818:Aborted command 'clean' for resource 'ora.p1panie.db'. Details at (:CRSAGF00113:) {0:6:29} in /u01/app/
2013-06-05 03:37:26.307
[cssd(67762)]CRS-1608:This node was evicted by node 3, exs2db03; details at (:CSSNM00005:) in /u01/app/
2013-06-05 03:37:26.318
[cssd(67762)]CRS-1656:The CSS daemon is terminating due to a fatal error; Details at (:CSSSC00012:) in /u01/app/
2013-06-05 03:37:26.318
[cssd(67762)]CRS-1652:Starting clean up of CRSD resources.
2013-06-05 03:37:26.340
[cssd(67762)]CRS-1608:This node was evicted by node 3, exs2db03; details at (:CSSNM00005:) in /u01/app/
2013-06-05 03:37:26.450
[cssd(67762)]CRS-1608:This node was evicted by node 3, exs2db03; details at (:CSSNM00005:) in /u01/app/
2013-06-05 03:37:26.647
[cssd(67762)]CRS-1608:This node was evicted by node 3, exs2db03; details at (:CSSNM00005:) in /u01/app/
2013-06-05 03:37:26.869
[cssd(67762)]CRS-1608:This node was evicted by node 3, exs2db03; details at (:CSSNM00005:) in /u01/app/
2013-06-05 03:37:26.921The main reason for this issue was "DSKM process appears to be hung.", but definately this was not because of high load Since OS Watcher at this time doesn't show any load.
So, I believe this could be due to some bug in database.

In few of the cases, bugs could be the reason for node reboot, bug may be at Database level, ASM level or at Real Application Cluster level. Here, after initial investigation from Database Administrator side, DBA should open an SR with Oracle Support.

Please share if you know any other Common reason for Node eviction in RAC environment in comment section of the post.


  1. Replies
    1. Thanks Manish, Don't forget to Subscribe for new updates...

  2. Good Explanation... Umesh....:)

  3. Really cool information

  4. I am very impressed with your page… It’s very usefull… Keep it up…. Thanks..
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  5. It's cool Umesh.In one of the project where I was not having access to the servers. I have got to know that node reboots happened due to NTP server reboot and in another case it happened due to firmware upgrade. Please share if you have more details if you come across with the above situations.

    1. Hi Bhaskar, Thanks for appreciation.

  6. Good Scenarios and nice explanation.

  7. Hi umesh nice explanation.
    Tell me with more details about which are all the background processes involved during node eviction.

  8. One can learn about reboot issues clearly, though they dont get a chance to work, Super boss